Junit Test Public Method

Check out the related tutorial here. As we can see, JUnitParams solves the problems which we found from the parameterized tests that use the test runner provided by JUnit. Howto categorize JUnit test methods and filter them for execution. Namely we will parse JSON from resources and give access to corresponding POJO inside test method. @Before and @After sandwiches each test method in the class. Jupiter – the engine to run JUnit 5 tests. How to perform unit testing using the JUnit testing tool. This is about solving an issue that comes up frequently in unit testing. A test method is deÞned by any method that Þts the following criteria:!. Try/Catch Idiom. All need to be part of the build, whether they are executed frequently or infrequently. You can read more method using Junit Docs. We then register the Subscriber with the Publisher. If desired, the assert keyword can be used to verify private method arguments, to check the internal consistency of. assertEquals ("Multiplication", 6, 3*2); } } The method testMultiplication will be discovered automatically by its Test Annotation (a feature of Java 5). When there are multiple test cases, we want to execute test cases in order. JUnit rules allow to modify behavior of each test method in a class. EPA publishes laboratory analytical methods, or test procedures that are used by industries and municipalities to analyze the chemical, physical and biological components of wastewater and other environmental samples that are required by the Clean Water Act (CWA). JUnit A tool for test-driven development History Kent Beck developed the first xUnit automated test tool for Smalltalk in mid-90’s Beck and Gamma (of design patterns Gang of Four) developed JUnit on a flight from Zurich to Washington, D. JUnit是由 Erich Gamma 和 Kent Beck 编写的一个回归测试框架(regression testing framework)。Junit测试是程序员测试,即所谓白盒测试,因为程序员知道被测试的软件如何(How)完成功能和完成什么样(What)的功能。. Do let me know if you see any trouble running this code. Even though JUnit has served us well for the last 15 years, its age is starting to show. ) Question 2: D. Use a nested test class. The test methods have to be simply annotated with org. It should be noted that JUnit creates a new instance of the test class for running each @Test method. JUnit provides different kinds of assertion methods to check the result of the code executed within a test. And shazam, I can now test all my private methods. What I show below is that maybe getter/setters should be tested, especially in Java which really does not have “real” properties. Thus, a class author should be able to confirm that all calls of a private method are valid. StrutsTestCase provides both a Mock Object approach and a Cactus approach to actually run the Struts ActionServlet, allowing you to test your Struts code with or without a running servlet engine. This excerpt from the book Beautiful Code by Alberto Savoia, explains what JUnit is and how developers can use it to test their own code. import org. It doesn't have to be a unit test on a private method -- it could be, for example, logging. Annotating a public void method with @Before causes that method to be run before each Test method. Testing protected methods with JUnit 4 One of the pains of JUnit is testing protected methods. TestCase, or for public/protected methods with names starting with test in concrete classes that extend junit. There are many different testing libraries and frameworks, as well as many different types of test. Running a JUnit test Right-click on the BasketballTests class and select Run As --> JUnit Test. To test the dog’s attachment to their owners, the study put each dog through a variation of what is known as the Strange Situation Test. class) public class A { @Parameters public Collection data() { return overrideableMethod(); } } Subclass public class B extends A { @Override public Object[] overrideableMethod() { // change list of parmeters } @Test a() { } } However, this seems not to be possible due to Java. How to define and execute unit test with Junit 5 and mockito 2: To run Junit 5 test case with Mockito2 , we use Juipter extensions support and here we will use mockito extension , the purpose of Junit 5 extensions is to extend the behavior of test classes or methods, and these can be reused for multiple tests. It brings code coverage analysis directly into the Eclipse workbench: Fast develop/test cycle: Launches from within the workbench like JUnit test runs can directly be analyzed for code coverage. Each test case of Selenium RC test will invoke the browser and closes after playing back 2. In this example, we will be running the group fast, so aFastTest() will be invoked while aSlowTest() will be skipped. Invoked once before all test methods Invoked before each test method Test One Invoked after each test method Invoked before each test method Test Two Invoked after each test method Invoked once after all test methods As we can see, JUnit 4 invokes the methods in the order that was described in this lesson. When there are multiple test cases, we want to execute test cases in order. You will notice that in Junit 5, one of the most obvious changes is that test classes and methods do not have to be public anymore. JUnit 4 uses annotations for that purpose, so that the prefix "test" is actually superfluous. public static void toBeMocked(int someParam) { // do some checks and throw RuntimeException if fail } } I would like to stub out this static method behavior since I don't care about the check & throw exception. It reports failure on each test. 0 of jUnit, all that is needed to write a test is to annotate a method containing test code with the "Test" annotation available from the "org. The solutions usually fall into 4 categories: Don't test private methods. To run the method, JUnit first constructs a fresh instance of the class then invokes the annotated method. So we can say that dynamic test is the product of a factory method. The way the JUnit parameterized runner works is you annotate a method with @Parameterized. @TestFactory method differs with @Test method in such a way that @TestFactory method is not itself a test case but rather a factory for test cases. At the moment, the prerequisites of the TestContainers library are: Docker; Java 8 (or higher) A JVM testing framework. We then register the Subscriber with the Publisher. Dynamic test has been introduced in JUnit 5 Jupiter. This circumstance imposes some logical restrictions on development. Testing a call to a protected method. This is usually the shortest part of a test. The second method parameter is a matcher for Biscuit objects, here a matcher that checks one object is equal to another using the Object equals method. java, because class Test is not public. Deeper Testing of the Exception. Now have a look at this one, that tests a negative scenario:. This class is nothing but a class with main[ ] method which calls the JunitCore class of junit framework. Even though JUnit has served us well for the last 15 years, its age is starting to show. Try/Catch Idiom. Verification -> Then In this section, assertions on any results from the execution step are implemented. That's why you test the public method, asserting the expected results of the public method and thereby, the private methods it consumes. Try running it, remember first of all to start the Selenium-RC server as explained in earlier sections. It has no boilerplate code, and because the parameters are passed directly to the test method, we can have multiple test methods that use different parameters. Just do not do this anymore. Annotating a public void method with @Before causes that method to be run before each Test method. public interface MockitoRule extends MethodRule Since 2. should be public When user junit 4. If the test suite has not been converted to JUnit4 yet, one or more test methods can be added to the class using the JUnit conventions. JUnit is a framework for developing unit tests for Java classes. Clair Shores on Monday announced a public health advisory after e levated levels of lead were found in some homes tested. @Before and @After sandwiches each test method in the class. This code is a variation of the code used in JUnit Testing Spring Service and DAO (with In-Memory Database). We test a method for the expected results and sometimes exception-throwing cases—whether the method is able to handle the exceptions in the way we want. JUnit Test Cases Class. All data elements included in the CCDS are required to be available by the Health IT Module; however, the test procedure includes only a subset of elements that are required to be included in the case report by public health to support case reporting at this time. Do let me know if you see any trouble running this code. JUnitCore class is responsible for running tests. i have called 2 levels to test that number of times called gives some positive value but i am unable to get anything other then zero times called. 11) It is recommended that test methods be written so that they are independent of the order that they are executed. You can understand by following below example. But there are some methods which are not abstract. This method is used by JUnit to discover test methods, which means test order may change across executions. Provides extranet privacy to clients making a range of tests and surveys available to their human resources departments. Use classes from. JUnit: JUnit is an open-source unit testing framework for java programmers. Practice From 2V0-41. The real magic is setAccessible(true) which allows the private method to be called outside the class. JUnit - Test Framework - JUnit is a Regression Testing Framework used by developers to implement unit testing in Java, and accelerate programming speed and increase the quality of code. TestCase, but the new tests using JUnit 4 should not do this. Also, avoid deploying JUnit and other testing packages with your application. 4 Test Class Template in 2 Minutes?. One-time set up and tear down. Write the test case method in the fixture class. Unit testing with Java 9, Jigsaw and JUnit. Spock testing framework versus JUnit 28 Apr 2017. Oh, sure JUnit 4 let us @Ignore a test class or method, and JUnit 5 provides this behavior through the @Disabled annotation. Well, JUnit 5 method resolver uses IsTestMethod predicate which requires that test method returns void. As we can see, JUnitParams solves the problems which we found from the parameterized tests that use the test runner provided by JUnit. Initialization Error - Java. In this way, it can enhance your code with greater abstraction. Currently it supports instruction, branch, line, method and class coverage which is pretty anything you can expect from this kind of tool. More than 1 year has passed since last update. First Junit Test Junit Test Runner Muliple Test Method & Test Classes JUnit Test Suite JUnit Tests with Eclipse. @BeforeClass and @AfterClass sandwiches all of the test methods in a JUnit test class. He was still able to. Java source code. The test case verifies the behavior of the code by asserting the return value against the expected value, given the parameters passed. The above approach is useful for simple cases, but it has its limits. 19 exam simulator provides you the true exam analysis. This can either be done by running it from command line or using one of its various run() methods (this is what your IDE does for you if you press the run test button). Testing on the JVM is a rich subject matter. I realise that the thought of Unit Testing private methods in Java classes can be like a red rag to a bull for some people and I understand the arguments. print("The grade is "); printGrade(78. When you write a separate suite to execute the test cases in order, you might feel pain in the neck when you try to add every testXXX() method to the suite, esp. I tried change the default 4848 port but with the [] Luca wrote: Kenai is no more. For this reason, instance variables cannot be used to share state between test methods. Rules are used to add additional functionality which applies to all tests within a test class but in a more generic way. The real magic is setAccessible(true) which allows the private method to be called outside the class. When JUnit encounters a method annotated with @Test, it constructs a new instance of the class, and then. Now have a look at this one, that tests a negative scenario:. I have to work with Java and I would like to use unit tests. Basically, JUnit is an open source unit testing tool and used to test small/large units of code. */ public static Test suite() { /* Junit uses reflexion to add automatically all the methods of TestFoo whose name begins by "test" */ return new TestSuite(TestFoo. Just like I said in my answer. There will be no errors; the output will be: 30 20 30 40 (There is no need for a constructor with no arguments because there are no uses of "new Test" with no arguments. JUnit 5以前では、メソッド名にテストの説明が日本語で書かれることもあったと思いますが、 JUnit 5では、メソッド名は英語のままで、@DisplayNameにテストの説明を書くと良さそうです。. Testing of private methods would depend on their complexity; some one line private methods wouldn't really warrant the extra effort of testing (this can also be said of public methods), but some private methods can be just as complex as public methods, and difficult to test through the public interface. Project Jigsaw adds modularization to Java, which will change the way we write Java code. In above example, we are running only one test method using maven 'test' command. When jUnit is run on a class it will call all of the methods it finds annotated with the "Test" annotation. Provides extranet privacy to clients making a range of tests and surveys available to their human resources departments. JUnit testing. You can work with Behavior-Driven-Development tools like Cucumber or JBehave, or simply use JUnit. public is also declared for methods and variables. To run multiple test, TestCase class is available in org. In the test method, we will write the code to test the concatAndConvertString() method of App. The solutions usually fall into 4 categories: Don't test private methods. when a method or variable is public then the method or variable can be accessed from not only inside the package but also from outside the package. Instead of the supplier, you should have an abstract method, and your @Before method should be changed:. This is Part 2 of Q&A. This method consumes a configuration of type EmbeddedKafkaClusterConfig. This code is a variation of the code used in JUnit Testing Spring Service and DAO (with In-Memory Database). Note: Of course, you need to add the JUnit 4 JAR file to the classpath first. Actually, it has becomes a very popular way for a lot of projects, framework, etc. We test a method for the expected results and sometimes exception-throwing cases—whether the method is able to handle the exceptions in the way we want. Based on the concept of a project object model (POM), Maven can manage a project's build, reporting and documentation from a central piece of information. REST Assured uses JUnit, so testing support in the build process is ready out of the box for the tools that support JUnit. assertEquals(int , method call): Here in assertEquals() you have to pass expected value in first parameter and you have to call test method. That’s where Spring comes in. And selecting “Run as > Junit test”. Here is a list of the assert methods. Calling data from one class to another class - framework for JUnit. Java unit testing frameworks like jUnit, TestNG with some other pretty frameworks like easy mock and easy mock class extensions help us test individual classes with mocking out the external dependent classes/resources and make the tests more "unit". Now have a look at this one, that tests a negative scenario:. none(); Then in the test method you can use its expect() and expectMessage() to assert the type of expected exception and the exception message. If the public methods make use of private methods, then these private methods automatically get tested when the observable results of the public methods are checked. The results of the test appear in the Console window. Start studying Intro to Java Programming Chapter 8. method is the test method that will eventually get called and. java package javagf; public class Add { public int sum(int a, int b) { return a + b; } } AddTest. Selenium and JUnit, the right way! Jan 24, 2017 • tags: testing selenium architecture • by amihaiemil • Comments There are many tutorials out there about how to use Selenium with JUnit to write automated tests for the UI. But if you want, you can create your own custom extension of one of both of the conditional test execution API methods to inspect the currently running test and decide on-the-fly, whether or not to run a test class (via. You can see the implementation in the missingInformation test method above. In JUnit 5 all JUnit 4 assertion methods are moved to org. JUnit is most popular Java Unit Testing Framework. Deeper Testing of the Exception. It executes each test within a separate instance of the test class. In this post we'll look at how to write parameterized tests - creating an extension will be left for the future. Hi Anna, I simply wanted to know if I need to declare a specific test class for any static inner class separately. The problematic scenario, e. Whereas I only wanted to test public methods in my conformance tests, I wanted to write unit tests for package access and occasionally private methods as well as public methods. In order to get an automatic grading for this question you need to create and implement a JUnit test-file. Smallest testable unit in Java is a method. To run multiple test, TestCase class is available in org. Note that not every test method must be parameterized - you can. @Test: It is used to specify the test method. class" is created, because main is a method, not a class. This way you can see directly which files fail the tests. This is anyway better than adding a detailed comment for the test which will get outdated pretty soon. You only pass the class with the tests to a TestSuite and it extracts the test methods automatically. This chapter is dedicated to explaining how Gradle handles. Starting with version 4. In this article, I will discuss these four approaches to testing private methods in Java. Re: How to write Junit Test case for a Void Method 807600 Aug 16, 2007 5:22 AM ( in response to 3004 ) i have a method send() which sends the email in the inbox but it doesnt have a return type. You can rerun a test either by clicking the Rerun button in the view's tool bar or you can re-run the program that was last launched by activating the Run drop down. Provides extranet privacy to clients making a range of tests and surveys available to their human resources departments. This code is a variation of the code used in JUnit Testing Spring Service and DAO (with In-Memory Database). JUnit: JUnit is an open-source unit testing framework for java programmers. Now, to test the public method that calls this private method, I would need to test main. Javaのテストユニットとして、Junitは当たり前に使用されるようになりました。 publicメソッドのテストは当然ですが、private,protectedメソッドの テストはおろそかになりがちです。 ホワイトテストの実施は、プログラマーの. public static Test suite() public static Test suite() {//method added hi. Start studying Intro to Java Programming Chapter 8. 4+ ) have begun including Hamcrest core matchers and this allows for an even more fluent test as depicted in the next code snippet. This article is about approach to testing such caller methods. Spock testing framework versus JUnit 28 Apr 2017. Provides extranet privacy to clients making a range of tests and surveys available to their human resources departments. These include assertEquals(), assertTrue() and assertFalse(). Embracing JUnit 5 with Eclipse. Setting up a Mock Project XXX rather than copying and pasting code like this from the wiki, you should define useful utility methods in an appropriate module and maintain them. This is a follow up to my previous post about data injection with JUnit. To run the method, JUnit first constructs a fresh instance of the class then invokes the annotated method. In computer programming, unit testing is a software testing method by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures, are tested to determine whether they are fit for use. And shazam, I can now test all my private methods. JUnit also provides annotation hooks to run particular methods before or after all or each of the @Test methods. JUnit framework does not have “Parameterized Test” or “Dependency Test” features. As I mentioned in the introduction, giving methods package access was my first approach to testing private methods with JUnit. It uses Java as a programming platform, and it is an Open Source Software managed by the JUnit. This guide will show you how to simplify some of the less common tasks as well. There are some answers in S tackoverflow which give some solutions recommendations but it looks like it is not as simple:. JaCoCo is quite a new tool for measuring and reporting code coverage with full support for Java 7. Allowing JUnit Tests to Pass Test Case on Failures Why create a mechanism to expect a test failure? There comes a time when one would want and expect a JUnit @Test case fail. That's why you test the public method, asserting the expected results of the public method and thereby, the private methods it consumes. In case you have a class Foo with the method bar the generated method would be called testBar. JUnit tests are started using the JUnitCore class. JUnit creates the AppTest class with a testConcatAndConvertString() method decorated with the @Test annotation. JUnit rules allow to modify behavior of each test method in a class. This is used to select test cases to be executed. Flexibility has been one of the strong points of TestNG right from the start, but that's not its only selling point. We can even add normal test methods into our test. Testing and Mocking of Static Methods in Java. Madison’s sewage district is among more than 100 utilities that have ignored a request from state regulators to test for hazardous chemicals entering and leaving the treatment plant. The easiest way of running a single JUnit test method is to run it from within the test case's class editor: Place your cursor on the method's name inside the test class. A test class contains one or more test methods. When creating a test case, it is required to have one or more test methods. The test passes since the Biscuit class defines an equals method. Java actually provides ways to call private method with the help of reflection, java. So whether you are using JUnit or SuiteRunner, you have the same four basic approaches to testing private methods: Don't test private methods. Every application that is created by a developer has to be tested for its functionality. JUnit provides a way to intercept the test suite and test method execution by providing the concept of rules. However, to test Android-specific functionality you need a bunch of wrapper classes built on top of JUnit. @Test: The Test annotation tells JUnit that the public void method to which it is attached can be run as a test case. This is an easy way to test the behaviour of a cached method. Add an annotation that gets a directory as an input (the directory includes sample inputs for test). In order to use. tearDown methods defined in the JUnit framework. 0: Practical Methods for Programmer Testing (2004). @Test: It is used to specify the test method. We create a Publisher to test. We recommend that you read Prerequisite section first, review the abstract and Example Application to understand the context. A Whirlwind Introduction to JUnit. So, its all about test implementation prospective view. Guys , I am pretty new to Junit , i am trying to a simple. Testing on the JVM is a rich subject matter. JUnit-Addons uses this fact to provide a few simple methods for testing methods and attributes on an object or class (static) level. TestCaseclass and implementing one or more test method. According to JUnit website, JUnit is a simple framework to write repeatable tests. This "per-method" test instance lifecycle is the default behavior in JUnit Jupiter and is. When JUnit encounters a method annotated with @Test, it constructs a new instance of the class, and then. JUnit 4 uses annotations for that purpose, so that the prefix "test" is actually superfluous. 0 test classes do not inherit from TestCase, as a result, the Assert methods are not available to the test classes. However, it is also possible to use a setting that creates a new test instance for each test class. What is JUnit? JUnit is a testing tool for the Java programming language. Select your new class, right mouse click and select New ->JUnit Test case, change the source. class): Exceptional behavior expected (i. To run the method, JUnit first constructs a fresh instance of the class then invokes the annotated method. @Before and @After sandwiches each test method in the class. Selenium-Jupiter has been built using the dependency injection capability provided by the extension model of JUnit 5. JUnitCore class is responsible for running tests. Hi Anna, I simply wanted to know if I need to declare a specific test class for any static inner class separately. Selenium and JUnit, the right way! Jan 24, 2017 • tags: testing selenium architecture • by amihaiemil • Comments There are many tutorials out there about how to use Selenium with JUnit to write automated tests for the UI. Okay, onward with some examples. Junit annotations example program code : Annotations for Junit testing: 1. Let’s take a closer look at method EmbeddedKafkaCluster. Therefor we use a JUNIT Test to test the methods implemented above work as intended and to see the results of data insertion. He concludes by showing the following example: [TestFixture] public class ServerTester { private IList list = new ArrayList (); [Test] public void first { list. Though there are multiple solutions for this available on the Internet, some suggest mocking while other suggest to use single scoped Order bean in the test configuration file (bad practice!). Thus, a class author should be able to confirm that all calls of a private method are valid. All method in Assert class comes with two overloaded variants; one accepts an extra message parameter to show when assertion fails. Note this annotation does not take any attributes. JUnit 5, the next generation of JUnit, facilitates writing developer tests with new and shiny features. JUnit - 测试框架 什么是 Junit 测试框架? JUnit 是一个回归测试框架,被开发者用于实施对应用程序的单元测试,加快程序编制速度,同时提高编码的质量。. Reactive Java (RxJava) has existed for a couple of years now, but it hasn’t really become mainstream yet. assertEquals(int , method call): Here in assertEquals() you have to pass expected value in first parameter and you have to call test method. First, the org. Any test method that is to have parameters is annotated with their @Parameters annotation (not the same one as JUnit's). It validates if that code results in the expected state (state testing) or executes the expected sequence of events (behavior testing). Enjoy learning coding skills in vb script and Java and learn how to develop advance solutions using frameworks. If the two values are equal, nothing happens. All tests in a class with the @Rule will be managed by JGoTesting. Often, a fake class needs to be used throughout multiple tests, or even applied for the test run as a whole. As you may have figured out from the simple test, most of the secret of implementing JUnit unit tests, is in the use of the assert methods in the class org. TestCase class, and that have any number of methods with names beginning with the word "test". The JUnit FAQ explains the issue as follows: JUnit is designed to work best with a number of small tests. The solutions usually fall into 4 categories: Don't test private methods. The solutions usually fall into 4 categories: Don't test private methods. Unit Testing is concerned about testing individual programs/classes to ascertain that each program/class runs as per specification. JUnit-benchmarks hints a full GC before every method run to ensure similar test conditions for every invocation. As an example, if you are testing a method that validates email IDs, you should test it with different email ID formats to check whether the validations are getting correctly done. Recently, however, I came across a situation where I needed to confirm a defect, verify a fix, and perform additional testing of a handful of edge cases related to the functionality. @Test: The Test annotation tells JUnit that the public void method to which it is attached can be run as a test case. Write the test case method in the fixture class. Thus, if you have five test methods, JUnit constructs five instances of your test case. You can work with Behavior-Driven-Development tools like Cucumber or JBehave, or simply use JUnit. To define that a method is indeed a test method, define it with the @Test annotation. When unit testing code with JMS you’ll typically want to avoid the overhead of running separate proceses; plus you’ll want to increase startup time as fast as possible as you tend to run unit tests often and want immediate feedback. One way is to click the Run button in the top toolbar (it looks like a green "Play" symbol). Exception: Method. You can still add more test cases to test append() with different input e. A test class contains one or more test methods. Testing protected methods with JUnit 4 One of the pains of JUnit is testing protected methods. In case you have a class Foo with the method bar the generated method would be called testBar. Reference: org. A way out is that you can perform unit testing manually or can change your method from “private” to “protected”. Test methods must be annotated by the @Test annotation. This is a tutorial, after all!. But sometimes we want to call it directly, for example in unit testing. These methods can be used directly: Assert. Simple use is very straightforward and JUnit 5 brought some differences and conveniences compared to JUnit 4. When JUnit encounters a method annotated with @Test, it constructs a new instance of the class, and then. The following table lists annotations and their meaning in JUnit. Each test case is just a public void method, with no parameters, that you have annotated with @Test. Starting with version 4. This feature enables us to execute a single test method multiple times with different parameters. Translating this above "Hello world" example into JUnit 4. JUnit Parameterized Tests While testing, it’s common to execute a series of tests which differ only by input values and expected results. With older versions of JUnit, fixtures had to inherit from junit. Since C++ does not have support for reflection, it becomes a bit of a challenge to write a. public class MyProcessTest extends JbpmJUnitTestCase {public void testProcess() {// create your session and load the given process(es). In short rule is a hook triggered when test (method) is run. Test: Nominal behavior expected (i. A better way to deal with this is to use Reflection. What are the challenges with Selenium RC test suites when running in JUnit?The challenges with Selenium RC test suites when running in JUnit 1. JUnit 5 has native support for parameterizing test methods as well as an extension point that allows third-party variants of the same theme. 0 of jUnit, all that is needed to write a test is to annotate a method containing test code with the "Test" annotation available from the "org. 1, if the class you handed to the test runner declared a public static Test suite() method, the runner would execute that method and run() the resulting suite, regardless of whether the providing class was a derivative of TestCase. When you write a separate suite to execute the test cases in order, you might feel pain in the neck when you try to add every testXXX() method to the suite, esp. At least those are the typical things to check here. A single automation test script may comprise numerous test methods in it. Just write the name and we have complete test method template in our class. Exception: Method. To make this technique reusable in other tests, we can use a JUnit @ Rule. The JUnit framework is a framework that uses annotations to show methods that specify a test. JUnit - Unit Testing in Java CS 4354 Summer II 2016 Jill Seaman 1 Much of the material in this lecture is from the online tutorials listed on the Readings page (accessible from the class website). This annotation denotes that a method is a test method.